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Treatment Parkinsons – Amantadine For Parkinsonism Treatment Or Disorders Of Movement

Author : Bhupinder Kaur Khera

In October 1966 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved it as a prophylactic agent against Asian influenza. Again in 1969, it occurred unexpectedly that this medicine can help to reduce symptoms of Parkinson's disease and drug-induced extrapyramidalsyndromes.

The mechanisms for its antiviral and antiparkinsonic effects are not related to each other. In parkinsonism, amantadine ↑ presynaptic dopamine release, blocks dopamine reuptake into the presynaptic neurons, and has anticholinergic effects. As an antiviral it prevents the release of viral nucleic acid into the host cells, which is most effective against influenza virus. It works by inhibiting replication of influenza virus (a myxovirus) at an early stage of the process (probably uncoating of viral nucleic acid). As an antiparkinsonic it can be used as monotherapy; or together with L-DOPA to treat L-DOPA-related motor fluctuations and L-DOPA-related dyskinesias. Dr. William Singer of Harvard University has anecdotally research and proved the effects of the low-dose amantadine to treat ADHD.

Parkinson's disease or PD belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders (motor symptoms). Symptoms may include disorders of mood, behavior, thinking, and sensation (non-motor symptoms). It is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills and speech, as well as other main functions. It can be distinguished by muscle rigidity, tremor, a slowing of physical movement also called bradykinesia; and it can advance to loss of physical movement also called akinesia. PD is the most common cause of chronic progressive parkinsonism. PD is also called primary parkinsonism or idiopathic PD. Parkinsonism are mostly of idiopathic kind, secondary cases may result from toxicity of drugs, head trauma, or other medical condition.

By and large, there is a greater risk for individuals suffering from depression to acquire Parkinson's disease at a later stage. Many patients already suffering with Parkinson's disease who have been diagnosed with pre-existing depression also develop anxiety disorder. Nearly 90% of patients with Parkinson's disease and pre-existing anxiety subsequently develop depression, apathy or abulia.

The diagnosis is based on medical history and neurological examination. It is difficult to diagnose this disease accurately. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale is the primary clinical tool used to determine the severity of PD. Doctors usually look for shuffling of feet and lack of swing in the arms. Sometimes doctors may ask for brain scan or laboratory test in an attempt to rule out the diseases.
In many cases people with Parkinson's disease are depicted as having no specific cause. A recent study has found that those who have experienced a head injury are four times more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than those who have never suffered a head injury. The risk of developing Parkinson’s increases eightfold for patients who have had head trauma requiring hospitalization, and it increases 11-fold for patients who have experienced severe head injury. PD is not considered to be a fatal disease by itself, but it progresses with time. The progression of PD may take 20 years or more. However, in some cases, the disease progresses more quickly. In the late stages of the disease, PD may cause complications such as choking, pneumonia, and falls that can lead to death. With appropriate treatment, most people with PD can live productive lives for many years after diagnosis.

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Bhupinder Kaur Khera is an online writer. She has researched and studied on how to achieve a healthier, balanced lifestyle and have access to the essential medicines. For free expert advice on safe, effective and assured quality medicines for parkinsonism treatment or disorders of movement visit us

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Tags:    disorders of movement, parkinsonism treatment, treatment parkinsons

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Submitted : 2010-10-22    Word Count : 600    Times Viewed: 508